- Created on 13 December 2013
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This article is the first part of a study Soccer drills for u6 conducted by Thiezrry Fabiano who will focus on the physical evolution of the child (parts 1 and 2) and on the drive of the child and the adolescent (parts 3 and 4) from the elements posed in the first 2 parties.
1. GENERAL DATABASES
Definition of the concepts "age" and "aging" limit of biological age
The concept "age" is used in the literature of the gerontology in contexts and different meanings. We distinguish between the chronological age, the biological age, the age psychological, age social and functional age (Singer 1981).
Chronological age (the calendar) does not provide as a neutral concept, applications in statistics, that an order of general information in the direction of a digital cell in which each individual is classified according to its date of birth.Soccer drills for u6 However, the chronological age often expressed not the biological age of a person.
The biological age (or the age individual) is described as the age that a body presented on the basis of the biological quality of its fabrics compared to normal values. soccer drills for u6 kids It depends on the process of biological maturation and of exogenous influences.
The psychological age based on the ability of individual adaptation, on the subjective responses and the clean image of an individual. However, it may also be considered under the aspects of the age of performance, of the sum of experiences, and the maturity of spirit (Bocher 1969).
The age social or sociological is strongly determined by the structure of the society in question.soccer drills for u5 Thus, the same individual can he be classified among the young people in some cases, or among the old in other circumstances to the inside of the same company (Bocher 1969).
The search for the functional age represents an attempt to bring together the ages biological, psychological and social in a single and thus determine the actual age. The classification in a functional age given (children, old age) therefore implies at the same time a functional capacity determined. Finally, the concept of «age" is also often used to describe the last part of life.
2. GENERAL FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY APPLIED TO THE SPORT AT L"CHILD AND L'ADOLESCENT
"The child is not an adult in miniature and its mentality is not quantitatively, but also qualitatively different from that of the adult, so well that the child is not only smaller, it is also different" (Claparã¨de, 1937)
One of the fundamental differences between the child or adolescent, and the adult is due to the fact that the first are still in a period of growth and that their body undergoes yet a large number of transformations as a physical, psychological and psycho-social, which has very large influences on their bodily activities, sports and on their capacity for effort.
Special notes related to the growth: implications for the ability of physical effort and psychological growth and size, bodily proportions.
The increase of the size is not linear, but rather proceeded by relapses more pronounced at certain periods of the growth. The same goes for this which is the weight or the development of a body in particular.
The speed of growth is the most important during the first year; then it decreases rapidly during early childhood, to stabilize during the pre-school period and remain relatively constant until the beginning of puberty.soccer drills for u8 At puberty, we witnessed a burst of growth and a strong increase in size. The judgment of the growth occurs when the cartilage of conjugation (cartilage epiphysaires) is ossifies, that is to say, in general, 2 to 3 years after puberty.
When the development is said normal, chronological age and biological age match. Soccer drills for u6For the subjects on whom the development is early (accelerated), the sequence of events related to the growth is in advance by one or several years in relation to the normal operation. Among the topics late, the delay may be for one or more years.
Growth and metabolism
Among the growing child, the "metabolism of construction" played a very special role, because the processes of growth and differentiation of intensive, which require a large number of constructions and reshuffles of existing structures, contribute to raising the basic metabolism: among the child, the basic metabolism is 20 to 30 percent higher than that of the adult (Demeter 1981). In addition, the need for vitamins, minerals and foods are increased. soccer drills for kids This is more particularly the care in proteins, which are the highest: the children have need of 2.5 g/kg of their body weight in protein, which corresponds to the needs of sports adults trained in tests of strength. Additional efforts can further increase these needs in the child.
During the bodily activities or sports, or the volume and intensity of the loads are very large, such as, for example, in sports activities or a high-level of performance are produced during childhood (figure skating, gymnastics, etc.), the metabolic process (catabolism) necessary for the supply of energy during training and competition can possibly prevail on the metabolism of construction (anabolism) and hinder growth or, at the very least, decrease the capacity to provide an effort.soccer drills for u10 Periods of sufficient recovery are therefore particularly important for children and adolescents.
Growth and skeletal apparatus passive
The act of "Mark Jansen" (Berthold and'Thiebach 1981) establishes that the sensitivity of the tissue is proportional to the speed of growth. The child or adolescent is therefore more particularly exposed to the dangers of injury due to loads of excessive drive and anti-physiological. This fragility appears especially during the thrust of pubertal growth which creates a real danger of lesions of orthopedic overload. However,soccer drills for u5 and u6 at the same chronological age or biological, the achievement of an effort can be supported differently from one subject to another. Figure 132 shows clearly that a given effort may have effects" bio positive" or "negative bio" depending on the situation initial orthopedic of the subject.
The capacity of the appliance osseous, cartilaginous, MSK and ligament ire to withstand an effort is a limiting factor in the drive of the child and the adolescent, because the structures of the locomotors system in full growth and do not yet have the resistance from those of adults.
Some peculiarities are clean to childhood and adolescence:
- The bones are more flexible because of the greater proportion of organic materials relatively soft. However, their resistance to traction and to the pressure is less than that of adults, which limited the ability of the entire skeletal system to withstand high loads.
- The tedious tissue and ligament Aires are not yet quite resistant to traction, because their structure micellaire is little marked (the micelles form structures similar to the crystalline networks), and they present. A greater proportion of intercellular tissues; due to their rate of division linked to the growth, the cartilaginous tissue and, more specifically, the cartilage of conjugation which are not yet ossifies pose a risk of injury very high when they are subjected to strong pressures or high shearing forces.
On the whole, it is found that an effort sub-maximum, adapted to the growth, diverse, does not solicit unilaterally the locomotors system, represents an appropriate stimulus for both growth and for the improvement of structures.Soccer drills for u6 Unilateral efforts, maximum or executed without preparation during the growth can,soccer drills for u4 on the other hand, cause to more or less long term (injury delayed) the destruction of the fabrics concerned.
It should also be mentioned, in connection with what has been said previously, that the structures of the musculoskeletal system liabilities of the child and the adolescent to adapt bio positively to loads adequate; however, the speed of this adaptation is not comparable to that of the locomotors system active: whereas in the muscles may already be observed functional changes and morphological one week after a stimulus to drive, in the bones, cartilage, tendons and ligaments, these changes are apparent only after several weeks of training.soccer practice u6 This slow adaptation associated with a greater sensitivity of the body to the overloads, due to the growth, requires that children perform a rigorous progression in the metering of the load in order to ensure the passive structures supporting the movement an adaptation period sufficiently long and in order not to exceed the limits of the body and thereby avoid the accidents which are the result (Weineck 1982).
Figure 133 shows that the recovery time of the locomotors system liabilities is slow and that the subsequent efforts too early can lead to an incomplete recovery and, therefore, Soccer drills for u6 increase the risk of injury to the structures involved.
Figure 133: Sequence hypothetical time of the recovery process and adaptation of the muscular system (a), of the support systems and liaison (b), as well as after incomplete recovery (c) (Dietrich 1979, changed to After Matter, in Berthold/incl. Thierbach 1981).
To be continued...
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